Vaccination of individuals has been practiced for many years and has been one of the most effective methods of controlling infectious diseases. Unfortunately, even with this success, society continues to suffer multi-billion dollar economic losses annually due to infectious diseases. These losses occur in all animal species as well as in humans. In order to further reduce these losses, academicians and companies are employing the multidisciplinary approach to develop better and safer vaccines. These include capitalizing on advances in molecular biology, chemistry, pharmacy, immunology, genomics, proteomics, and fermentation. Thus, we are moving from a more empirical approach to vaccine production to a more focused, and, hopefully, more logical approach to identification and production of protective antigens. Furthermore, formulation and delivery of these antigens is playing a major role in revolutionizing how we deliver vaccines to induce the most appropriate immune response and ensure protection. The current review summarizes some of these advances and speculates as to how future vaccines will be produced and delivered for the benefit of society.