Long-Chain-Fatty-Acid CoA Ligases: The Key to Fatty Acid Activation, Formation of Xenobiotic Acyl-CoA Thioesters and Lipophilic Xenobiotic Conjugates

Author(s): Kathleen M. Knights.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents

Volume 3 , Issue 3 , 2003

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Abstract:

Long-chain-fatty-aid CoA ligases (EC 6.2.1.3) catalyse the bioactivation of fatty acids forming acyl-CoA thioesters that are then substrates for anabolic and catabolic pathways. In addition to these roles it is now recognised that fatty acyl-CoA esters are key regulatory molecules affecting numerous cellular systems and processes such as cell signalling, membrane fusion, protein acylation, protein kinase C activity, and gene transcription as natural ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The key to both fatty acid activation and xenobiotic acyl-CoA formation is the role played by the long-chain ligases (LCL) that exist as a super family of membrane proteins. Focussing on information relevant to humans, multiplicity of LCLs, their structural features, and regulation are discussed. The fate of fatty acyl-CoAs and the role of LCL in directing fatty acyl-CoA traffic are also considered as these are integral to an appreciation of the consequences of xenobiotic-CoA conjugation and the formation of lipophilic conjugates. Although fatty acid activation is considered crucial to the provision of bioactive regulatory molecules, xenobiotic-CoA conjugation is at times a barely recognised route of drug metabolism. Knowledge of the consequences of xenobiotic-CoA formation and the pervasive intracellular role these conjugates play can provide further insight into xenobiotic metabolism and the interrelationship with lipid metabolism.

Keywords: fatty acid activation, xenobiotic acyl-coa thioesters, lipophilic xenobiotic conjugates, long-chain-fatty-aid coa ligases, long-chain ligases

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Article Details

VOLUME: 3
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2003
Page: [235 - 244]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1568013033483384
Price: $58