Many chronic debilitating diseases result from uncontrolled inflammation. Inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and platelets, respond to inflammatory stimuli and foreign substances by producing bioactive mediators, such as eicosanoids, chemokines, and cytokines. These mediators act as autocrines and paracrines by interacting with many cell types to amplify the inflammatory response. Studies of lipoxins, eicosanoids derived from the lipoxygenase pathways, provide evidence of endogenous antiinflammatory molecules to dampen the inflammatory response. This article reviews the recent advances in antiinflammatory research and provides insight into pharmaceutical and clinical relevance. Selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors have currently been in the spotlight for their anti-inflammatory effects without the side effects of older, nonselective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, many new areas of interest in the regulation of the inflammatory response include leukotriene receptor antagonists, monoclonal antibodies to cytokines, and synthetic analogs of lipoxins.