Anti-IgE Monoclonal Antibody (Omalizumab) in the Treatment of Atopic Asthma and Allergic Respiratory Diseases

Author(s): Gennaro D'Amato, Gennaro Liccardi, Paolo Noschese, Antonello Salzillo, Maria D'Amato, Mario Cazzola.

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy

Volume 3 , Issue 3 , 2004

Abstract:

Since the discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies thirty-six years ago, our understanding of the mechanisms of allergy has improved to such an extent that we can now better differentiate allergy from non-allergic hypersensitivity, and allergic / atopic from intrinsic / nonatopic bronchial asthma. IgE antibodies are crucial immune mediators of airway inflammation in allergic atopic asthma and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are the likely mechanisms of allergen-induced airway obstruction. In addition, IgE may cause chronic airway inflammation in asthma through effector cells activated via high-affinity (FcεRI) or low-affinity (FcεRII) IgE receptors. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies able to reduce free IgE levels and to block the binding of IgE to FcεRI without cross-linking IgE and triggering degranulation of IgE-sensitised cells have been developed. This non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb-E25; omalizumab) binds IgE at the same site as these antibodies bind FcεRI and FcεRII. As a consequence, omalizumab inhibits IgE effector functions by blocking IgE binding to high-affinity receptors on IgE effector cells and does not cause mast cell or basophil activation because it cannot bind to IgE on cell surfaces where the FcεR1 receptor already masks the anti-IgE epitope. Studies in patients with atopic asthma demonstrated that omalizumab decreases serum IgE levels and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction during both the early and late-phase responses to inhaled allergen. In several clinical controlled trials omalizumab resulted to be able to reduce asthma-related symptoms, to decrease corticosteroid use and to improve quality of life of asthmatic patients.The anti-IgE approach to asthma treatment has several advantages, including concomitant treatment of other IgE-mediated diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergies), a favourable side-effect profile and a twice-monthly dosing frequency.

Keywords: anti-ige monoclonal antibody, atopic asthma, allergic respiratory diseases

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Article Details

VOLUME: 3
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2004
Page: [227 - 229]
Pages: 3
DOI: 10.2174/1568010043343615
Price: $58

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