The proliferation of new peptides and proteins requiring characterisation is a direct result of recent advances in genomics and proteomics, but protein aggregation is particular problem in the biotechnology industry, where aggregation is encountered throughout the lifetime of a therapeutic protein, including during refolding, purification, sterilization, shipping, and storage process. To ensure that it meets quality standards, the size, molecular weight and / or molecular weight distribution, and aggregate state must be accurately determined. Traditional analytical methods for determining molecular weight include size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), gel electrophoresis, analytical ultracentrifugation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These technologies are time-consuming (some take days), provide data based on relative standards, or cannot characterise very high molecular weight aggregates. Laser light-scattering (LS) detection coupled with SEC system have been used for over a decade to determine the size and molecular weight of bio-molecules such as proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, oligonucleotides, and antibodies, the method of choice being for molar mass determinations and the study of self-association and heterogeneous interaction under native, equilibrium conditions in solution. The purpose of the current review is to describe and discuss the capability of the SEC / LS system to determine absolute molecular weight of proteins and their complexes and the association state of the conjugate, either with itself or with protein receptor / ligands. For this, the “two or three detector” methods, each with its advantages and limitations, can be used to calculate the molecular weight of a simple protein or glycoprotein, and the stoichiometry of their complexes. Also, some alternative techniques for determining the molecular weight are discussed in this review. Applications of all these methodologies are described.