The prevalence in obesity has increased dramatically over the past 30 years, more than double in the United States alone. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, biliary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer. The pathophysiology of obesity is complex, involving behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors. Current treatment options include behavior modification and lifestyle changes which incorporate weight-reducing diets and physical activity, FDA approved long-term anti-obesity pharmacological agents sibutramine and orlistat, non-FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) supplements and nutriceuticals, and, when appropriate, bariatric surgery. Without adequate prevention and treatment of obesity, government agencies have suggested that the direct and indirect costs associated with obesity may overwhelm the healthcare system. This brief review explores the current data available on treatments for the obese patient including the relative merits of different types of macronutrient composition (e.g., low carbohydrate vs. high carbohydrate diets) of weight-reducing diets, the value of resistance / strength training in physical activity programs designed for the obese patient, the safety and efficacy associated with OTC supplements and nutriceuticals for weight reduction (e.g., Ephedra, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia / hydroxycitric acid (HCA), chromium, pyruvate), the safety and efficacy of FDA-approved long-term obesity treatments sibutramine and orlistat, and bariatric surgery.