Factors Affecting Sexual Transmission of HIV-1: Current Evidence and Implications for Prevention
Derek J. Chan
Affiliation: lbion Street Centre, 150-154 Albion Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
The predominant mode of HIV-1 transmission globally is from sexual practices. The risk of HIV-1 transmission by sexual means is a function of infectivity, susceptibility and mode of transmission (type of sexual practice). In addition, transmission may be significantly increased or decreased by factors relating to the HIV-1 per se, sexual behaviour, other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), antiretroviral therapy (ART), spermicidal microbicides and HIV-1 vaccines, the host immune system, genital anatomy and nutritional deficiencies. Current research into the factors affecting sexual transmission of HIV-1 appears to benefit developed nations more than developing nations because of structured public health systems and the capacity to translate research findings into prevention strategies. A redistribution of global aid funding would do much to alleviate the pandemic in developed countries.
Keywords: HIV-1 transmission, spermicidal microbicides, sexually transmissible infections (STIs)
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