Inactivated or “killed” virus (KV) is a “classical approach that has produced safe and effective human and veterinary vaccines but has received relatively little attention in the effort to develop an HIV/AIDS vaccine. Initially, KV and rgp120 subunit vaccines were the two most obvious approaches but, unfortunately, rgp120 has not been efficacious and the KV approach has been limited by a variety of scientific, technical, and sociological factors. For example, when responses to cellular antigens, present on SIV grown in human cells, proved to be largely responsible for efficacy, the KV approach was widely discounted. Similarly, when lab-adapted HIV-1 appeared to lose envelope glycoprotein during preparation (not the case for primary isolates), this was viewed as a fundamental barrier to the KV concept. Also, a preference for “safer”, genetically-engineered vaccines, and emphasis on cellular immunity, have left KV low on the priority list for funding agencies and investigators. The recent suggestion that “native” trimeric gp120 displays conserved conformational neutralization epitopes, along with the failure of rgp120, and difficulties in raising strong cellular responses with DNA or vectored vaccines, has restored some interest in the KV concept. In the past 15 years, several groups have initiated pre-clinical development of KV candidates for SIV or HIV and promising, albeit limited, information has been produced. In this chapter we discuss the rationale (including pros and cons) for producing and testing killed-HIV vaccines, the prospects for success, the nature and scope of research needed to test the KV concept, what has been learned to date, and what remains undone.