The bee venom is used for treating a wide variety of conditions from acute tendonitis to chronic back pain to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The major treatment is gene therapy or recombinant DNA vaccines involved in targeting multiple antigenic components to direct and empower the immune system to protect the host from infection. Limitations of therapy for the treatment of patients suffering from various adverse reaction and contraindications are always experienced. Antigenic epitopes on melittin protein of Apis dorsata are important determinants of protection against rheumatoid arthritis. As our knowledge of the immune responses to a protein antigen progressed, it became clear that the whole protein is not necessary for raising the immune response, but small segments as 4-AILKVLSTGLPALIS-18 of protein called the antigenic determinants or the epitopes, are sufficient for eliciting the desired immune response. Immunization cassettes should be capable of immunizing broad immunity against both humoral and cellular epitopes, thus giving vaccines the maximum ability to deal with A. dorsata immune escape against rheumatoid arthritis.
Keywords: Antigenic epitope, secondary structure, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity
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