Regulation of Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Musculoskeletal Cells
Gopiga Thanabalasundaram, Nikita Arumalla, Hiteshkumar D. Tailor and Wasim S. Khan
Affiliation: University College London Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capability of differentiating into several different cells such as osteoblasts (bone), chondrocytes (cartilage), adipocytes (fat), myocytes (muscle) and tenocytes (tendon). In this review we highlight the different regulators which determine the lineage a particular MSC will differentiate into. Mesenchymal stem cells are increasingly being used in tissue regeneration and repair. Strict regulation of differentiation of MSCs is essential for a positive outcome of the particular tissue treated with MSCs, especially due to the fact that capacity to differentiate decreases with increasing age of the donor.
Keywords: Adipocytes, chondrocytes, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells, myocytes, osteoblasts, tenocytes, Orthopaedic Surgery, bone tissue engineering, Gene transfer
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