Nutrition in Pediatric/Neonatology Patients Submitted to Mechanical Ventilation
Artur F. Delgado,
Mario Cicero Falcao,
Simone Brasil Iglesias.
This review emphasizes the use of nutrition support how an important priority in the management of children with severe respiratory insufficiency. This situation causes metabolic deregulation leading to muscle proteolysis (hypercatabolism) and can cause hospital malnutrition that constitutes important risk factor for increases in morbidity, lethality, length of hospital stay, and medical costs. Sequential evaluation of nutritional status in the patient with acute respiratory disease should be assessed by clinical and laboratory procedures. Although there is general agreement that nutrition is an important element of critical care, there is much less clarity about the exact requirements of children with specific problems, including acute respiratory diseases. Enteral nutrition is the recommended method of artificial feeding in intensive care unit, including in patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Combined nutritional support is considered an optional tool to avoid energy deficiency during hypocaloric enteral nutrition. The trend towards earlier initiation of adequate metabolic-nutrition support based on protocols can improve the clinical condition of critically ill children with acute respiratory disease.
Keywords: Nutrition support, enteral nutrition, acute respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, pediatric intensive care units, malnutrition, Cachexia, muscle mass, ventilators
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