Research examining the role of several factors associated with body size estimation is reviewed. Methodological techniques and issues related to measuring body size estimation are described. Several factors associated with body size estimation are reviewed including eating disorders, obesity, weight loss, hunger/satiety, restrained eating, mood, depression, body regions, age, childhood sexual abuse, menstrual cycle, media influences, and gender. Of these factors, the role of eating disorders, obesity, weight loss, restrained eating, depression, body regions, age, and media influences has, to varying extent, been clarified. The role of hunger/satiety, mood, childhood sexual abuse, menstrual cycle, and gender is still not clearly understood and await further research. Differing methodological techniques account for much of the inconsistency in findings. Methodological shortcomings in measuring body size estimation are reviewed and recommendations for dealing with these issues are detailed.