Ligaments of the Wrist, Ankle and Foot: Sonoanatomy and Sonopathology
David Andrew Bong,
The ligaments of the wrist, ankle and foot play a critical role in the static and dynamic stabilization of the joints of these regions. The advent of high resolution ultrasound has markedly improved the evaluation of pathologic alterations of the structure by enabling direct visualization. In the wrist region, the focus is on the extrinsic ligaments, those ligaments that have their origin in the bones of the forearm and insert on the carpal bones, that include the radio-scaphoid, radioscaphocapitate, long radio-lunate (LRL), the short radio-lunate and radiotriquetral. The anatomy, sonoanatomy and sonopathology of the ankle ligaments (deltoid, anterior and posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular), anterior aspect of the ankle syndesmosis and the spring ligament complex are reviewed. Finally, the ligamentous anatomy of the forefoot is detailed as an understanding of this region is key to evaluation of its important sonopathologies.
Keywords: Anatomy, ankle, ligament, musculosketetal, ultrasound, sonoanatomy, wrist
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