At present, the search for preventive strategies for cognitive decline and dementia appears to be of crucial importance, given that the therapeutic options currently available have demonstrated limited efficacy. Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggested that vascular and vascular-related factors may be important for the development of agerelated cognitive decline (ARCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline of degenerative (Alzheimers disease, AD) or vascular origin (vascular dementia, VaD). Among vascular-related factors, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with the increased risk of predementia syndromes (ARCD and MCI), overall dementia, and VaD, but contrasting findings also exist on the possible role of MetS in AD. In the next future, trials could then be undertaken to determine if modifications of these risks including inflammation, another factor probably related to MetS, could lower risk of developing cognitive decline. If MetS is associated with increased risk of developing cognitive impairment, then early identification and treatment of these individuals at risk might offer new avenues for disease course modification. Future research aimed at identifying mechanisms that underlie comorbid associations will not only provide important insights into the causes and interdependencies of predementia and dementia syndromes, but will also inspire novel strategies for treating and preventing these disorders. At present, vascular risk factor management could be decisive in delaying the onset of dementia syndromes or in preventing the progression of predementia syndromes.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, dementia, diabetes mellitus, HDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment, obesity, predementia syndromes, vascular dementia, vascular risk factors, metabolic, syndrome
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