Vitamin D has an important role in bone mineralization and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Thus, vitamin D deficiency is better characterized in the situations that involve the musculoskeletal system and bone metabolism. Recently, there is an interest in the association of vitamin D deficiency with the presence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and arterial hypertension. The mechanism underlying the inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and blood pressure is not completely understood, but it seems to involve several systems. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that vitamin D may influence blood pressure by regulating reninangiotensin system, improving endothelial function, blunting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, improving insulin sensitivity, reducing the concentrations of serum free fatty acids and regulating the expression of the natriuretic peptide receptor. In accordance with recent clinical studies and meta-analyses, the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and hypertension is controversy. There is no doubt about the role of vitamin D in skeletal health. However, the vitamin D supplementation to prevent or treat hypertension has been the subject of recent debate. Thus, the decision to use supplementation with vitamin D would be important in patients with vitamin D deficiency. This review article discusses the association between vitamin D and hypertension, vitamin D supplementation and some recent patents related to vitamin D and hypertension.
Keywords: Bone mineralization, cardiovascular disease, calcium homeostasis, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, pathophysiology, vitamin D, vitamin D metabolism, Vitamin D Deficiency, Natriuretic Peptides
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