Interaction between Gastric and Upper Small Intestinal Hormones in the Regulation of Hunger and Satiety: Ghrelin and Cholecystokinin Take the Central Stage
Andreas Stengel and Yvette Tache
Affiliation: Center for Neurobiology of Stress, CURE Building 115, Room 117, VA GLA Healthcare System,11301 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, 90073, USA.
Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in the forebrain, such as hypothalamic nuclei. So far, ghrelin is the only known hormone that is peripherally produced in gastric X/A-like cells and centrally acting to stimulate food intake, whereas the suppression of feeding seems to be much more redundantly controlled by a number of gut peptides. Cholecystokinin produced in the duodenum is a well established anorexigenic hormone that interacts with ghrelin to modulate food intake indicating a regulatory network located at the first site of contact with nutrients in the stomach and upper small intestine. In addition, a number of peptides including leptin, urocortin 2, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 interact synergistically with CCK to potentiate its satiety signaling effect. New developments have led to the identification of additional peptides in X/A-like cells either derived from the pro-ghrelin gene by alternative splicing and posttranslational processing (obestatin) or a distinct gene (nucleobindin2/nesfatin-1) which have been investigated for their influence on food intake.
Keywords: Brain-gut, duodenum, food intake, gut peptides, stomach, vagus, Gastric Hormones, small intesting, ghrelin, satiety, Cholecystokinin, central stage, endocrine cells
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