Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic associations between plants belonging to eight angiosperm families and soil bacteria of the genus Frankia. These interactions lead to the formation of new root organs, actinorhizal nodules, where the bacteria are hosted and fix atmospheric nitrogen thus providing the plant with an almost unlimited source of nitrogen for its nutrition. It involves an elaborate signaling between both partners of the symbiosis. In recent years, our knowledge of this signaling pathway has increased tremendously thanks to a series of technical breakthroughs including the sequencing of three Frankia genomes  and the implementation of RNA silencing technology for two actinorhizal species. In this review, we describe all these recent advances, current researches on symbiotic signaling in actinorhizal symbioses and give some potential future research directions.
Keywords: Actinomycete, auxin, legume, mycorrhiza, biological nitrogen fixation, Rhizobium, symbiosis, SYMRK, Root-nodule symbioses, Plant-Bacteria Recognition, Casuarina, Flavonoids?, actinorhizal plants
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