Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations, in both the fasting and the postprandial states, may pose a significant independent risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both fasting and postprandial lipoprotein concentrations vary substantially among individuals, and this interindividual variability is driven by a combination of non-genetic and genetic factors. Regarding the genetic component, the efforts to elucidate the variability in postprandial response have resulted in the identification of associations with multiple lipid candidate genes. However, most reported associations are based on very simple models including one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or haplotype at a time and small sample sizes. Progress in this promising area of research requires more comprehensive experimental models, including larger sample sizes that will allow investigating gene-gene interactions. Reviews of the literature in the area of ApoA5, GCKR, and PLIN genes and postprandial lipemia are used to demonstrate the complexities of genotype-phenotype associations. Knowledge of how these and other genes influence postprandial response should increase the understanding of personalised nutrition.
Keywords: Gene-diet interaction, nutrigenetics, polymorphism, postprandial lipemia, triglycerides, GCKR gene, cardiovascular disease, ApoA5 gene, PLIN gene, single-nucleotide polymorphism
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