Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Abuse and Liver Toxicity
M. Neri, S. Bello, A. Bonsignore, S. Cantatore, I. Riezzo, E. Turillazzi and V. Fineschi
Affiliation: Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale “Colonnello D'Avanzo”, Viale degli Aviatori 1, 71100, Foggia, Italy.
Keywords: Anabolic androgenic steroids, apoptosis, liver, inhibitors of apoptosis, oxidative stress, peliosis hepatis, athletes, liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, lysosomal hydrolases, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, Heat Shock Proteins, inflammatory cytokines
In the athletes the wide use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cause series damage in various organs, in particular, analyzing the liver, elevation on the levels of liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, both benign and malignant, and peliosis hepatis are described. A prolonged AAS administration provokes an increase in the activities of liver lysosomal hydrolases and a decrease in some components of the microsomal drug-metabolizing system and in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes without modifying classical serum indicators of hepatic function. Liver is a key organ actively involved in numerous metabolic and detoxifying functions. As a consequence, it is continuously exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidants that are by-products of many biochemical pathways and, in fact, it has been demonstrated that intracellular oxidant production is more active in liver than in tissues, like the increase of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and the inhibitors of apoptosis NF-κB and Heat Shock Proteins.
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