Interactive Effect of Combined Exposure to Active and Passive Smoking on Cardiovascular System
Affiliation: Via Provinciale 27, 19030 Castelnuovo Magra, Italy.
A great number of observations show that cardiovascular damage from smoking may be a consequence of both active and passive smoking exposure. Some findings identify an increase in cardiovascular events in active smokers as well as in non-smokers exposed to passive smoking. The type and extension of damage seem to be similar qualitatively either in active smokers or in exposed never smokers. Artery vessels and myocardium feel particularly the effects of smoking. Ischaemic heart disease and atherosclerosis progression are the common alterations observed. Individuals exposed to both active and passive smoking feel the adverse effects of smoking. Result of the interaction consists primarily of increased rate of clinical events whereas the type of anatomical alterations is similar to those which characterize respectively isolated exposure to active or passive smoking. However, the extension of cardiovascular damage may vary even if, usually, in the same location of pre-existing lesions. The article also presents some of the patents regarding the effects of smoking on cardiovascular system.
Keywords: Active smoking, passive smoking, interaction, cardiovascular damage, Coronary vasospasm, Sidestream smoke, Mainstream smoke, Vapor phase, myocardial infarction, dimethylarginine, smoking cardiomyopathy, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, Ultrasonography, coronary vasoconstriction, pre-existing artery narrowing
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