Ultrasound Microbubble Contrast and Current Clinical Applications
Shiva Dindyal and Constantinos Kyriakides
Affiliation: General Surgery Specialist Registrar/Vascular and Endovascular Research Fellow, Barts and The London NHS Trust, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Circulatory Sciences Clinical Academic Unit, Vascular and Endovascular Surgical Services, The Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, E1 1BB, United Kingdom.
Keywords: Ultrasound, microbubble, contrast, clinical, Contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance scan, acoustic, real time imaging, Levovist, Feinstein, Echovist, Albunex, CEUS, SonoVue, cardio-pulmonary disease, cellular sonoporation, Echocardiography, ngiogenesis, VEGF, Doppler ultrasound, cerebral angiography, omputerized tomography, nephrostograms, ultrasonography, hysterosalpingography, Blunt abdominal trauma, FAST, Rheumatoid arthritis
Ultrasound imaging is widely used worldwide principally because it is cheap, easily available and contains no exposure to ionizing radiation. The advent of microbubble ultrasound contrast has further increased the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this technique thus widening its clinical applications. The third generation of ultrasound contrast agents consist of sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles encased in a phospholipid shell. This review will elaborate on the pharmacology, safety profile and method of action of these agents. We also aim to discuss the ever expanding uses for contrast enhanced ultrasound in a number of clinical specialities which include the liver, kidney, prostate, sentinel node detection, vascular tree and endovascular stent surveillance. We will also discuss some of the recent patents regarding the future uses of ultrasound microbubble contrast and recent technological advances in clinical applications.
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