Levosimendan: From Basic Science to Clinical Trials
Andrea Rognoni, Alessandro Lupi, Maurizio Lazzero, Angelo S. Bongo and Giorgio Rognoni
Affiliation: Coronary Care Unit, Hospital “Maggiore della Carita”, Corso Mazzini 17, 28100 Novara, Italy.
Keywords: Calcium-sensitizer, heart failure, &, levosimendan, nitroglycerine, nitroprusside, nesiritide, dobutamine, milrinone, PDEIs, arrhythmias, troponin C complex, ACE - inhibitors, digoxin, furosemide, spironolactone, acute coronary syndrome, Cardiac Remodeling, Coronary Artery Disease, Septic Shock, Pulmonary Hypertension, RUSSLAN, CASINO, LIDO, REVIVE, brain natriuretic peptide, SURVIVE, bradyarrhythmias
Levosimendan is one of the documented pharmacological agents used in the management and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure; it is a novel inodilator agent which enhanced myocardial performance without changes in oxygen consumption. The combination of positive inotropic and vasodilator effects of levosimendan relates to its Ca2+- sensitizing and K+ channels opening effects. Levosimendan has been proposed, in the recent past, to be non-inferior and may have some advantages to standard inotropes; further possible indications for levosimendan have been described, in some observational studies, such as a perioperative use, cardioprotection, cardiogenic shock, sepsis and right ventricular dysfunction. The ability of levosimendan to improve myocardial function without substantially increasing oxygen consumption may appear paradoxical but is possible via improved efficacy not only with regard to the effects on the contractile apparatus of the cardiomyocytes. The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacological characteristics of levosimendan and its clinical applications. The patent review data regarding the use of Levosimendan are also discussed in this review article.
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