Ophthalmic involvement in the rheumatic diseases may take the form of a broad range of orbital manifestations. Indeed, orbital involvement can be the sole or major feature of some diseases such as Wegeners granulomatosis, in which orbital masses and proptosis are common. These complications can have cosmetic implications, but can also lead to sight-threatening disease, if severe corneal exposure occurs, of if compressive optic neuropathy develops. This article discusses the clinical features of orbital involvement in the presence of systemic rheumatic disease, as well as current and emerging therapies for its management.
Keywords: Orbital inflammation, granuloma, optic neuropathy, Wegener's granulomatosis, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, rheumatic diseases, emerging therapies, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, pain, scleral inflamma-tion, Behçet's dis-ease, giant cell arteritis, Sjogren's, dacryoadenitis, maxillary sinus, exophthalmometry, neurofibromatosis, Scleroderma, blepharophimosis, sclerosis, entropion, ectropion, dermatomyositis, nasolacrimal system, carotid caver-nous fistula, meningoencephalocoeles, orbital cellulitis, necrotising scleritis, episcleritis, peripheral ulcerative keratopathy, uveitis, enophthalmos, Graves orbitopathy, granulomatous in?ammation, systemic lupus erythematosus, metastatic melanoma, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, eyelid granulomas, sarcoid granulomas, lymphopro-liferative lesions, epithelioid, B-cell MALT lymphoma, 2 of, epithelioid cell, kerato-conjunctivitis sicca, KCS, stromal corneal opacities, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, Polyarteritis nodosa, juvenile dermatomyositis, Kawasaki's disease
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