A series of new vaccines have recently been licensed or are at advanced stages of development. Among the illnesses targeted are herpes zoster, meningococcal meningitis serogroup B and pneumococcal disease, which represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. Zoster is a localized, painful cutaneous eruption caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). Approximately one in three persons will develop zoster during their lifetime, occurring most frequently among older adults and immunocompromised persons. Possible complications of zoster are postherpetic neuralgia, facial scarring, and loss of vision. Licensed zoster vaccine is a lyophilized preparation of a live, attenuated strain of VZV recommended for all persons aged 60 years or more who have no contraindications. Serogroup B meningococci represent the main cause of meningococcal disease in developed countries. Previous efforts for the production of an effective and safe vaccine have focused on outer membrane vesicle vaccines, which have been implemented successfully during clonal outbreaks. Nevertheless, ongoing research is being directed towards a universal vaccine against endemic polyclonal serogroup B meningococcal disease. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community acquired pneumonia in adults. The use of an adult 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could optimize protection against pneumococcal disease over the lifetime of the individual overcoming some of the limitations of the 23-valent polysaccharide. In addition to these efforts, progress is being made on dose sparing strategies that use intradermal delivery with microneedles in order to simplify administration and face possible shortages of vaccines. Despite the established benefit of intramuscular influenza vaccination, intradermal administration with comparable or improved immunogenicity is being explored.
Keywords: Vaccines, Herpes Zoster, serogroup B meningococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, conjugate vaccines, intradermal administration, Immunization, meningococcal meningitis, varicella zoster virus, neuralgia, influenza, sepsis, antimicrobial therapy, polysialated glycoproteins, Cuban meningococcal, HexaMen, PorA antigens, NonaMen, N. lactamica, N. meningitidis, GNA2132, GNA1870, Wyeth rLP2086, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, Zostavax, Varivax, Langerhans cells, hepatitis B, meningococcaemia, rLP2086, AIDS
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