Glucosinolates – Secondary Plant Products as Important Complex Interaction in our Biosphere
D. Becka J. Vasak.
Glucosinolates are the substituted esters of thio amino acids and their synthesis is based on the corresponding amino acids. Methionine and cysteine are the natural donors in the case of the Brassica plants and L tryptophane in the indole glucosinolates, respectively. In Brassica genus, alkenyl glucosinolates are mostly present and their content and composition differ as far as the development stage and the part of the plant are concerned. The indole glucosinolates are present in minority. Their role of sulphur supply is questioned by their very low content between 2 % in the beginning of vegetation and 0.1 % in its end. Glucosinolates are discussed mostly from the aspect of their anti-nutrition, anti-microbial, anti-fungicidal, and antibacterial effects and as being natural bio-fumigants. Their decomposition products have the mentioned properties. The products originate through prepared passive protection of the two-component system. From the aspect of these properties, it is useful to divide them into the following three groups according to the characters of their decomposition products. The first group (I), which hydrolyses in the neutral and alkaline environment creates isothio- cyanates. These bio-active compounds form the natural protection of the plant with bio-fumigatory effects, particularly. With their chemical composition they are ranked among natural pesticides with active and passive resistance against diseases and pests, isothiocyanates.Their anti-nutritive effects can be compensated by iodine, contrary to the second group (II). This group is created by hydroxy – glucosinolates, whose decomposition products – iso-thio-cyanates - are not stable and they cycle while producing substituted 2 – oxazolidimethione (goitrine – VTO). These glucosinolates represent a serious problem in feed industry since the VTO has a strong goitrogenic property. The third group (III) – glucosinolates contain the indole group or the benzene ring (Sinalbin), create thio-cyanates during their hydrolysis. The role of indole glucosinolates has not been completely clarified so far. Their anti-carcinogenic effects are studied and they fulfil the role of an active protection.
Keywords: Brassica genus, glucosinolates, biosynthesis, hydrolysis, iso-thio-cyanates, physiological function, anti-nutritive effects, natural biocides anti-bacterial, anti-microbial and anti-fungicidal properties, L tryptophane, in-dole glucosinolates, alkenyl glucosinolates, bio-fumigants, 2, –, oxazolidimethione, N, hydroxy-amino acid, aldoxime, hydroxy acid, de-sulpho glucosinolate, Moringaceae, Tovariaceae, Caricaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Salvadoraceae, Limnanthaceae, Tropaelaceae, Bataceae, Gyrostemonaceae, 2-amino-6-methyl-thio-hexane and 2-amino-7-methyl-thio-heptane acids, L-tryptophane, Sinigrin, Gluconapin, Glucobrassicanapin, Progoitrin, Napoleiferin, Sinalbin, Neoglucobrassicin, 4 - Hydroxyglucobrassicin, uridine-biphosphate-glucose, adenosine-phosphosulphate, progoitrine, indole-glucosinolates, parenchymatous tissues, 5-vinyl-2-oxazolidinethione, phyto-alexines, phyto-anticipines, myrosinase represents, bio-active iso-thio-cyanate, Raphanus sativus, Navajo
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