Bacteriostatic Activity of the Proregion of Human Hepcidin

Author(s): Christophe Barthe, Agnes Hocquellet, Bertrand Garbay.

Journal Name: Protein & Peptide Letters

Volume 18 , Issue 1 , 2011

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Abstract:

Hepcidin was first identified as an antimicrobial peptide expressed in the liver. It was later demonstrated that hepcidin is in fact the long sought hormone that regulates iron homeostasis in mammals. Hepcidin is encoded as an 84 amino acid prepropeptide that is successively cleaved to yield prohepcidin and the mature 25 amino acid hepcidin. Both the bioactive 25-aa hepcidin and the 35-aa proregion are secreted by liver hepatocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of the proregion peptide from human hepcidin. Using a chemically synthesized peptide corresponding to the proregion, we show that it is bactericidal against Bacillus megaterium (25μM), and inhibits Bacillus subtilis growth at high concentration (200μM). No synergistic interaction of proregion and Hepc25 against Bacillus megaterium was seen. In a further step, the mode of action of proregion on Bacillus megaterium was studied. It caused a slow accumulation of the vital stain SYTOX in the bacteria, indicating that it did not destroy the microbial membranes through a detergent-like mechanism, even at concentrations (80μM) higher than those required to kill the bacteria. This result suggests that the target of proregion might be an intracellular component. Finally, gel retardation assay showed that the DNA binding ability of the hepcidin proregion was equivalent to that observed for magainin 2, an antimicrobial peptide which exerts its antimicrobial effect by interfering with intracellular nucleic acids. In conclusion, we speculate that the proregion of hepcidin may have bacteriostatic effects, and as such may contribute to the innate immune response.

Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide, DNA-binding, hepcidin, proregion, prohepcidin, vital stain SYTOX, detergent-like mechanism, gel retardation assay, bacteriostatic effects, iron exporter ferroportin, N-terminal 24-residue endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), Mueller-Hinton, Sytox Green Uptake Assay, SYBRGreen filter, MxPro software, Peptide-DNA Interactions, human hepcidin possesses, buforin II, precursor proteins, magainin2, HNP-1, Colony Forming Unit, Minimal inhibitory concentration, Minimal bactericidal concentrationAntimicrobial peptide, DNA-binding, hepcidin, proregion, prohepcidin, vital stain SYTOX, detergent-like mechanism, gel retardation assay, bacteriostatic effects, iron exporter ferroportin, N-terminal 24-residue endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), Mueller-Hinton, Sytox Green Uptake Assay, SYBRGreen filter, MxPro software, Peptide-DNA Interactions, human hepcidin possesses, buforin II, precursor proteins, magainin2, HNP-1, Colony Forming Unit, Minimal inhibitory concentration, Minimal bactericidal concentration

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2011
Page: [36 - 40]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/092986611794328627

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