Liver Stem Cells and Possible Clinical Applications
The discovery of several sources of hepatic progenitors in extra-hepatic organs and tissues, both in animal models and in humans, supports opportunities to isolate, grow and expand them in vitro. Microenvironment factors involved in regulating proliferation and commitment of liver cell precursors have been identified and better characterization of liver stem cell pathobiology would greatly improve the understanding of liver differentiation/ regeneration processes, especially those leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. The goal of these researches has been to discover the most available, suitable and easy-to-use pluripotent stem cells (PSC) sources for cell-based therapies in genetic and acquired liver diseases, therapies which to date have required liver transplantation, This report reviews the efforts, so far, to either investigate the presence of PSC in hepatic and extra-hepatic districts or evaluate their capacity to differentiate in vitro and to restore in vivo liver function.
Keywords: Hepatic progenitor cells, microenvironment influence, liver differentiation, cell transplantation, adult stem cells, organs, cell compartments, biomedical application, embryonic stem cells, proliferate, Asymmetric cell division, developmental plasticity, multiple organ-specific cell types, plasticity, mammalian liver, hepatic progenitors cells, liver morphologic, gene expression, nuclear reprogramming, multi-factorial process, bipotent precursors, hepatoblasts, oval cells, biliary cells, Transplantation in animal, long-term maintenance, optimal expandability of liver stem cells, HUMAN HEPATOCYTE PROGENITORS, autoreplication activity, hematopoietic cells, murine embryonic, diabetics, trans-differentiation, microenvironment, epithelial cells, Purified HSC of murine, pluripotent cells, multipotent cells, tumorogenic risk, teratoma formation, extra-hepatic origin, gap junction formation, pluripotent stem cells, in vitro fertilized eggs, risk of transmitting infections, nuclear reprogramming functions, autologous transplantation, immune rejection, hepatic cell lineage, umbilical cord, blood-derived-cells, mature hepatocyte of liver precursors, clonogenic, pluripotent stem-like cell population, hepatic markers albumin, cell adhesion molecules, bipotent, Specific Selective, –, Cocktails, serum-free, specific mitogenic, fibroblasts growth factor 4, bile duct epithelium, liver milieu permits, extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli, synergistic action, Transcription Factors, nuclear factor kappa B, binding protein, liver mimics, establishment factors, ex vivo, hematopoietic diseases reconstruction, ductular reactions, Cirrhosis, immune system, displastic lesions
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