Embryo implantation depends on both embryo quality and the endometrial environment. Implantation failure has a complex, variable pathophysiology and is detrimental to the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, patients with multiple implantation failure require an individualized approach to diagnosing and managing treatment options for future IVF cycles. These options should be based on concrete, unambiguous, consistent scientific evidence with randomized, controlled trials.
We review and discuss 14 treatment options: (i) blastocyst transfer, (ii) assisted hatching, (iii) co-culture, (iv) preimplantation genetic screening, (v) hysteroscopy, (vi) sildenafil, (vii) salpingectomy for tubal disease, (viii) oocyte donation, (ix) transfer of six or more embryos, (x), intratubal embryo transfer, (xi) natural cycle IVF, (xii) antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) testing and treatment, (xiii) allogenic lymphocyte therapy, and (xiv) IV immunoglobin therapy. The approaches were evaluated based on available information from studies, expert opinions, consensus, etc.
We conclude that blastocyst transfer, assisted hatching, salpingectomy for tubal disease, and hysteroscopy in IVF procedures are clinically effective. This review serves as a summary of current treatment options for clinicians to counsel patients and manage their expectations based on strong and reliable evidence.