Soluble RAGE-Modulating Drugs: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeting Vascular Inflammation
The expression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is upregulated at sites of vascular inflammation and plays a crucial role in vessel homeostasis. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a truncated soluble form of the receptor, acts as a decoy and prevents the inflammatory response mediated by RAGE activation. sRAGE has recently emerged as a biomarker in several RAGE-mediated vascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetic vasculopathy and Kawasaki disease. Given the pivotal role played by RAGE and sRAGE in numerous vascular disorders, there is a growing need to understand how drugs can modulate the RAGE axis in different disease conditions. In this regard, there is evidence to suggest that traditional cardiovascular drugs (statins, thiazolidinediones, ACEinhibitors, AT-1 receptor antagonists) as well as nutraceuticals (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract) could modulate RAGE expression and circulating sRAGE levels in cardiovascular disease states characterized by enhanced RAGE activation. Additionally, the production of genetically engineered sRAGE may hold promise for targeting the activation of RAGE by proinflammatory ligands in the setting of vascular inflammation. The present review considers current vascular drugs as modulators of the RAGE axis, and highlights future directions in the context of RAGE-directed therapy in cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, vascular inflammation, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetic vasculopathy
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