O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins has been shown to be involved in many different cellular processes, such as cell cycle control, nutrient sensing, signal transduction, stress response and transcriptional regulation. Cells have developed complex regulatory systems in order to regulate gene expression appropriately in response to environmental and intracellular cues. Control of eukaryotic gene transcription often involves post-translational modification of a multitude of proteins including transcription factors, basal transcription machinery, and chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate their functions in a variety of manners. In this review we describe the emerging functional roles for and techniques to detect and modulate the O-GlcNAc modification and illustrate that the O-GlcNAc modification is intricately involved in at least seven different general mechanisms for the control of gene transcription.
Keywords: O-GlcNAc, transcriptional regulation, post-translational modification, review
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