Login

Journal Image
Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
ISSN (Print): 1574-888X
ISSN (Online): 2212-3946
VOLUME: 4
ISSUE: 3
DOI: 10.2174/157488809789057446      Price:  $58









Adult Stem Cells and Mammalian Epimorphic Regeneration-Insights from Studying Annual Renewal of Deer Antlers

img
Author(s): Chunyi Li, Fuhe Yang and Allan Sheppard
Pages 237-251 (15)
Abstract:
Mammalian organ regeneration is the “Holy Grail” of modern regenerative biology and medicine. The most dramatic organ replacement is known as epimorphic regeneration. To date our knowledge of epimorphic regeneration has come from studies of amphibians. Notably, these animals have the ability to reprogram phenotypically committed cells at the amputation plane toward an embryonic-like cell phenotype (dedifferentiation). The capability of mammals to initiate analogous regeneration, and whether similar mechanisms would be involved if it were to occur, remain unclear. Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of full renewal, and therefore offer a unique opportunity to explore how nature has solved the problem of mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Following casting of old hard antlers, new antlers regenerate from permanent bony protuberances, known as pedicles. Studies through morphological and histological examinations, tissue deletion and transplantation, and cellular and molecular techniques have demonstrated that antler renewal is markedly different from that of amphibian limb regeneration (dedifferentiation-based), being a stem cell-based epimorphic process. Antler stem cells reside in the pedicle periosteum. We envisage that epimorphic regeneration of mammalian appendages, other than antler, could be made possible by recreating comparable milieu to that which supports the elaboration of that structure from the pedicle periosteum.
Affiliation:
AgResearch Invermay Agricultural Centre, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand.