Female Contraception: Present and Future Perspectives
Rajesh K. Naz,
There are several contraceptive methods available to women. These include hormonal and non-hormonal methods. Hormonal methods have various routes of delivery including oral, transdermal, and vaginal. Non-hormonal methods can be permanent such as sterilization or temporary such as barrier methods. Some couples rely on natural family planning in an attempt to avoid pregnancy. In cases of unprotected intercourse, emergency contraception is available in several different forms. Despite many contraceptive options, there continues to be a population explosion and unintended pregnancies in the United States each year. The future lies in the development of a non-steroidal, non-barrier, nonsurgical, and intercourse-independent method that can be used by both men and women without any side effects, and is acceptable in both the developed and the developing countries. Contraceptive vaccines have been proposed as a valuable alternative that can fulfill most, if not all, of the requirements for an ideal contraceptive. This article will review the various contraceptive modalities available to women and their competitive advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Female contraception, pills, intrauterine devices (IUDs), condom, contraceptive vaccine
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