Nutrition and Bone Health: Its Relationship to Osteoporosis
Jesus Moro Alvarez,
Rosa Serrano Morales,
Eva Diaz Martin.
A balanced diet is fundamental to bone homeostasis, although this is also influenced by degree of maturity, hormonal behaviour and other intrinsic factors such as race and sex, which substantially determine bone mineral density (BMD). Calcium has been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone health at all ages, individual nutritional intake of calcium is below the recommended levels in all countries and at all ages. A low intake of calcium during adolescence, a crucial period for the rapid deposit of mineral in the bone, has repercussions on the attainment of the optimum level of bone mass in adulthood, and could certainly compromise its final value. We will review, throughout this chapter, the influence of diet, the recommended intakes and alimentary models in relation to bone health at different stages of life, such as pregnancy, the menopause and old age and the well known role of nutritional insufficiency in production of bone growth changes and promotion of osteoporosis in the elderly.
Keywords: Diet, nutrition, osteoporosis, bone health, bone mass, fragility fractures
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