For sustained growth, tumors are dependent upon neovascularization to feed their massive demand for nutrients and oxygen. Cancer cells produce growth factors and activators that stimulate vessels in the surrounding tissue to form a new circulatory network around the tumor. Therapies aimed at reducing the blood flow to the cancer cells can slow down tumor growth and reduce metastasis. This review describes novel anti-angiogenic agents, including antibodies directed against vascular growth factors and angiotensin II, pharmaceutical compounds and natural metabolites derived from plants and microorganisms. The relevant patents are discussed. These agents may become valuable anti-cancer therapeutics in the future, as a supplement to chemo- and radiation-therapy.
Keywords: Angiogenesis, antibiotics, antibody therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists, combination therapy, matrix metalloproteinases, opioids, polyphenols, simmondsins
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