Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem affecting at least 10 to 25 % of the population. So far, numerious classifications and treatment modalities have been described. In the treatment of allergic disorders Pharmacotherapy is the most used therapeutic modality, especially in allergic rhinitis. The first step to successful management is the accurate diagnosis of the type of AR (intermittent or persistent) and assessment of its severity (mild or moderate to severe). Although objective measurements of the nasal airway have great value to evaluate and follow up the cases, in most centers they are not done in routine clinical practice. Allergen avoidance should be the initial step in the management of AR. Oral antihistamines are the first-line therapy for mild to moderate intermittent and mild persistent rhinitis. They are also recommended for moderate/severe persistent rhinitis cases which are uncontrolled on topical intranasal corticosteroids alone. Corticosteroids are well known for their antienflamatory and anti allergic effects. Topical usage provides topical efficacy while avoiding systemic side effects. Meta-analysis shows that intranasal corticosteroids are superior to antihistamines. They act by suppression of inflammation at multiple points in the inflammatory cascade and reduce all symptoms of rhinitis. A meta-analysis demonstrated that Montelukast was better than placebo, as effective as antihistamines, but less effective than nasal corticosteroids in improving symptoms and QOL in patients with SAR. Good results were reported with subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Further investigations are promising.
Keywords: Allergic rhinitis, Medical Treatment, inflammation, corticosteroids, Montelukast
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