COPD is a condition characterized by progressive airflow obstruction which is rather insensible to bronchodilators. The pathogenetic mechanisms of this disorder are multifaceted, encompassing pulmonary inflammation, small airway remodelling, emphysema and mucous hypersecretion. As our comprehension of the heterogeneous pathology of the disease has improved it has been recognized that the ongoing inflammatory process in COPD is correlated with the relentlessness of this condition. Therefore, the scientific interest has been directed in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs targeting pulmonary inflammation. In this survey, we will try to evaluate current treatment options and the potential and efficacy of new treatment modalities.