Recent Developments in Anti-Cancer Agents Targeting the Ras/Raf/ MEK/ERK Pathway
Affiliation: Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Unit 1362, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Keywords: B-Raf, MEK, ERK, MAPK, imidazole derivatives, heterocyclic compounds
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway mediates cellular responses to different growth signals and is frequently deregulated in cancer. There are three Raf kinases-A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf; however, only B-Raf is frequently mutated in various cancers. The most common B-Raf mutation involves a substitution of a glutamic acid residue to a valine moiety at codon 600. Subsequently, the MAPK pathway is constitutively activated, even in the absence of any growth signals. Although early attempts to target Ras have not yielded any viable drug candidates, many novel compounds inhibiting the activities of Raf and MEK have been developed and investigated in clinical trials in recent years. The first MEK inhibitor (CI-1040) lacked efficacy in clinical trials, but its low toxicity has encouraged the search for novel compounds with enhanced target potency to inhibit MAPK activation at low nanomolar concentrations. In this review, we will discuss new patents or patent applications related to inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway.
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