Advanced drug delivery systems try to adjust the site and/or the rate of the release to the physiological conditions of the patient, to the progression of the illness, or to the circadian rhythms. Being different from classical preprogrammed controlled release dosage forms, the new devices aim to provide the drug release profile best for the needs of each patient. Intelligent drug delivery systems are mostly based on stimuli-responsive polymers which sense a change in a specific variable and activate the delivery; this phenomenon being reversible. This review reports on recent advances in the development of open-loop and closed-loop control systems based on stimuli-responsive polymers and their application in the drug delivery field as pulsatile and self-regulated devices. The aim of this review is to describe the most recent advances in the development of intelligent micelles and hydrogels which are sensitive to pH, specific molecules (with a mention to the molecular imprinting), temperature, irradiation or electric field, and the applications of which these mechanisms are intended.
Keywords: Drug Delivery Systems, Polymeric Micelles, Hydrogels, closed-loop control systems, irradiation, electric field
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