ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in a variety of physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, ion homeostasis and immune functions. A large number of these proteins have been causatively linked to rare and common human genetic diseases including familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency, retinopathies, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and cardiomyopathies. Furthermore, genetic variations in ABC transporter genes and deregulated expression patterns significantly contribute to drug resistance in human cancer and pancreatic beta cells and alter the pharmacokinetic properties of a variety of drugs. Up-to-date 15 ABC transporters have been identified in human pancreatic beta cells, however only a few of them are identified to date as proteins/genes associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in diabetes mellitus. Prominent members include the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1/ABCC8), the multi drug transporter TAP2 and member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A (ABCA1). ABCC8 is a subunit of the pancreatic beta-cell K(ATP) channel and plays a key role in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Although the physiological role of these transporters to MDR is not yet fully understood, they play an important role in the blood-membrane barrier in pancreatic beta cells. The aim of this article is to provide an overview and to present few examples of drug treatment in MDR in diabetes mellitus associated with function of ABC-transporters.
Keywords: ABC-transporter, multi drug resistance, diabetes mellitus, topology, homology, mutations, drug binding, interaction sides
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