Nocturnal Enuresis in Children: A Review of the Literature
Francesca Del Bufalo,
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a very common clinical disorder. According to DSM-IV, NE is defined as repeated voiding, accidental or on purpose, into clothing or into the bed, at least twice a week, for 3 consecutive months, in children older than 5 years, age in which the sfincterial control is acquired. The pathophysiology of NE is not fully understood. It has been suggested that NE is the result of a combination of osmoregulatory or urodynamic disturbances, disorders of arousal and genetic factors. The evaluation of a child with minctional disorders begins with a good history and a physical examination. Then laboratory analysis and instrumental investigations can be used. There are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for NE. The role of drugs is a short-term possibility that allows the child to recover confidence, or a temporary measure to tide him/her over nights spent away from home. For too long, NE has not been recognised as a severe condition, because there was no specific education at medical school and a poor involvement by the practitioners.
Keywords: Nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting, sfincterial control, detrusor hyperactivity, nocturnal polyuria
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