Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipains: The Molecular Teeth of a Microbial Vampire

Author(s): N. M. O'Brien-Simpson , P. D. Veith , S. G. Dashper , E. C. Reynolds .

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 4 , Issue 6 , 2003

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Abstract:

The gingipains are cell surface Arg- and Lys-specific proteinases of the bacterium Porphyromons gingivalis, which has been associated with periodontitis, a disease that results in the destruction of the teeths supporting tissues. The proteinases are encoded by three genes designated rgpA, rgpB and kgp. Arg-specific proteolytic activity is encoded by rgpA / B and the Lys-specific activity by kgp. RgpA and Kgp are polyproteins comprising proteinases with C-terminal adhesin domains that are proteolytically processed. After processing, the domains remain non-covalently associated as complexes on the cell surface. RgpB is also a cell surface proteinase but does not associate with adhesin domains. Using gene knockout P. gingivalis mutants, the proteolytic processing of the gingipain domains has been shown to involve the gingipains themselves as well as C-terminal processing by a carboxypeptidase. A motif in the C-terminal domain of each protein / polyprotein has been identified that is suggested to be involved in attachment to LPS on the cell surface. RgpB lacks a C-terminal adhesin binding motif found in the catalytic domains of RgpA and Kgp. This adhesin binding motif is proposed to be responsible for the non-covalent association of the RgpA and Kgp catalytic domains into the cell surface complexes with the processed adhesin domains. The RgpA-Kgp proteinase-adhesin complexes, through the adhesin domains A1 and A3, have been implicated in colonization of P. gingivalis by binding to other bacteria in subgingival plaque and also binding to crevicular epithelial cells. The RgpA-Kgp complexes also bind to fibrinogen, laminin, collagen type V, fibronectin and hemoglobin. Amino acid sequences likely to be involved in binding to these host proteins have been identified in adhesin domains A1 and A3. It is proposed that these adhesins target the proteolytic activity to host cell surface matrix proteins and receptors. The continual cycle of binding and degradation of the surface proteins / receptors on epithelial, fibroblast and endothelial cells by the RgpA-Kgp complexes in the gingival tissue leading to cell death would contribute to inflammation, tissue destruction and vascular disruption (bleeding). P. gingivalis has an obligate growth requirement for iron and protoporphyrin IX, which it preferentially utilizes in the form of hemoglobin. Kgp proteolytic activity is essential for rapid hydrolysis of hemoglobin and it is suggested therefore that a major role of the RgpA-Kgp complexes is in vascular disruption and the binding and rapid degradation of hemoglobin for heme assimilation by P. gingivalis. The RgpA-Kgp complexes also have a major role in the evasion and dysregulation of the hosts immune response. It is proposed that host pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular receptors close to the infection site may be rapidly and efficiently degraded by the gingipains while the proteinases at lower concentrations distally could result in the promotion of an inflammatory response through activation of proteinase-activated receptors and cytokine release. The culmination of this dysregulation would be tissue destruction and bone resorption. In animal models of disease the RgpAKgp complex when used as a vaccine to produce a high titre antibody response protects against challenge with P. gingivalis. Using recombinant domains of RgpA and Kgp as vaccines, it has been demonstrated that the A1 and A3 domains confer protection.

Keywords: porphyromonas gingivalis, arg- and lys-specific cell surface proteinases, virulence, pathogenic mechanism, vaccine

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Article Details

VOLUME: 4
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2003
Page: [409 - 426]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/1389203033487009
Price: $58

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