The drug discovery process often involves the screening of compound libraries to identify drug candidates capable of binding to target macromolecules. New approaches in biological and chemical research are driving a change in the pharmaceutical industry. Recent advances in NMR spectroscopy such as affinity NMR techniques, which detect binding of a small molecule with a “receptor”, have been shown to be valuable tools to perform rapid screening of compounds for biological activity. These NMR observable events include using relaxation, chemical shift perturbations, translational diffusion, and magnetization transfer. These one dimensional NMR methods increase both the throughput of screening and yield crucial data on the mode of binding. The practical utility of these techniques will be described.