Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression and play a critical role in endocrine signaling. Orphan nuclear receptors belong to this gene super-family but their target genes and physiological function have not been completely elucidated. In recent years, the identification of natural ligands for these orphan receptors, their expression pattern in different tissues and studies with knock-out animals has delineated distinct regulatory functions for these proteins. The orphans belonging to the PPAR, LXR and FXR family function as lipid and bile-acid sensors while PXR and CAR function as xenobiotic sensors. This review will describe the discovery of natural and synthetic ligands for a number of these orphan receptors (excluding the PPARs) and the identification and characterization of novel signaling pathways and new hormone response systems linked to these targets. Small-molecule modulators of LXR and FXR control key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. PXR is a highly promiscuous xenosensor that responds to xenobiotic ligands (antibiotics, statins, glucocorticoids) and induces the Cyp3A gene, thereby playing a role in hepatoprotection and bile acid metabolism. A related receptor from the gene subfamily, CAR, displays high ligand selectivity and modulation of its activity in humans may significantly alter metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. The role of the ER relatives, the ERRs will become more apparent as ligands are identified and linked to target genes and physiological function. These targets offer multiple opportunities for therapeutic intervention with small-molecule drugs, in diseases related to neuronal function, inflammation, lipid homeostasis, metabolic function and cancer.
orphan nuclear, receptor modulators, lipid homeostasis, cyp3a gene, xenobiotic ligands, xenobiotic sensors, bile-acid sensors, fxr family, orphan receptors, nuclear hormone receptors
X-Ceptor Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121, USA.