Multiresistant gram-positive cocci, including Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are emerging pathogens in the setting of immunocompromised, hospitalized patients, especially when surgery or invasive procedures are of concern, and patients are admitted in intensive care units. The spectrum of antimicrobial compounds available for an effective treatment of these infection is significantly threatened by the emerging and spread of glycopeptide-resistant strains. Quinupristin/dalfopristin is a novel streptogramine association, which represents an effective response to most of these problems, due to its innovative mechanim of action, its maintained activity against multiresistant pathogens, and its possibility of synergistic activity with other compounds. Problems related to the epidemiology of multiresistant gram-positive infection, potential clinical indications of quinupristin/dalfopristin, and updated data on efficacy and tolerability of this compound and its derivatives, are outlined on the ground of a review of available literature evidences.
Keywords: Streptogramins, quinupristin/dalfopristin, gram-positive cocci, multiple antimicrobial resistance, combination antimicrobial chemotherapy, immunocompromised patient, hospital-acquired infection
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