Recent comparisons of the pharmacological effects of nitric oxide (NO) and nitroxyl (HNO) donors have demonstrated that the responses to these redox-related nitrogen oxides are nearly universally dissimilar. These analyses have suggested the existence of mutually exclusive signaling pathways as a result of discrete chemical interactions of HNO and NO with a variety of critical biomolecules. Although the mechanisms of action are currently unresolved, the pharmacological responses to HNO are promising for clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke. This review provides a detailed discussion of the most commonly utilized donors of HNO as well as a guideline for the characterization of novel donors.
Keywords: nitroxyl, nitric oxide, angelis salt, pilotys acid, cyanamide, hydroxylamines, sulfohydroxamic acids, acylnitroso compounds, prodrugs, detection
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