Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive compounds that include docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). DHA seems to be necessary to optimize growth and development of infants neural functions. For preterm infants there is a wide agreement on LCPUFA benefits, while for term infants results are more controversial. There is presently a growing interest in supplementing pregnant and breastfeeding women with DHA. LCPUFA may act as coadjuvants in conditions of functional and organic brain impairments, as well as some inflammatory states, but caution is urged to prevent false expectations. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of the present scientific evidence concerning dietary LCPUFA supplementations.