The emergence of drug resistant mutations in current anti-HIV-1 drug regimens is an important determinant of the eventual drug failure. New drug development strategies that focus on either new targets or novel compounds are therefore critical for future effective viral suppression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Particularly, virus assembly and disassembly are attractive candidate processes for antiviral intervention. HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein and human cyclophilin A (CypA) play important roles in these processes, which consequently make them attractive targets of high priority. Inhibitors that target CA or CypA have been mainly divided into three classes: (1) compounds that specifically block capsid protein formation; (2) compounds that directly bind to the capsid and inhibit its assembly; and (3) compounds that bind to Cyp A and possibly inhibit the disassembly of capsid conical cores. Here, we give an overview of HIV-1 CA protein and Cyp A as new targets for potential anti-AIDS therapeutic agents.
Keywords: HIV-1, capsid, cyclophilin A, assembly, disassembly, HIV-1 inhibitors
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