Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which plays a central role in Alzheimer Disease, is generated by presenilin-dependent and presenilin-independent γ-secretase cleavages of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). We report that the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) also regulate p53-associated cell death Thus, we established that PS deficiency, catalytically inactive PS mutants, γ-secretase inhibitors and βAPP or APLP2 depletion reduced the expression and activity of p53, and lowered the transactivation of its promoter and mRNA levels. p53 expression was also reduced in the brains or βAPP-deficient mice or in brains where both PS had been invalidated by double conditional knock out. AICDC59 and AICDC50, the γ- and η- secretase-derived C-terminal fragments of βAPP, respectively, trigger the activation of caspase-3, p53-dependent cell death, and increase p53 activity and mRNA. Finally, HEK293 cells expressing PS1 harboring familial AD (FAD) mutations or FAD-affected brains, all display enhanced p53 activity and p53 expression. Our studies demonstrate that AICDs control p53 at a transcriptional level, in vitro and in vivo and unravel a still unknown function for presenilins.