Chemotherapy-induced respiratory failure is being increasingly recognized as a cause of respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. The frequency of chemotherapy-induced respiratory failure is low, however with increasing number of patients receiving new chemotherapeutic agents more cases can be expected to be seen. Chemotherapy-induced respiratory failure can be due to bronchospasm and hypersensitivity reactions, pulmonary hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic pneumonia, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pulmonary and critical care physicians should be aware of the clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced respiratory failure.
Keywords: Pulmonary toxicity, pneumonitis, respiratory failure, chemotherapy
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