The main function of the innate immune system from insects to mammals is to detect the presence of and act against invading microorganisms by recognizing their unique molecular signatures, most importantly, components of bacterial cell walls. A large number of peptides and derivatives, both synthetic and of natural origin, are known to influence immune responses in mammals by interacting with the conserved microbial structures, making the former attractive targets for drug development. This review focuses on structural aspects of the immunomodulating peptides and their receptors, including primary constitution, stereochemistry, conformation, binding and hydrophobic properties.
Keywords: caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), Lys-type peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, antimicrobial peptides, limulus anti-LPS factor
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